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This is a one-semester service course for Agriculture students, and does not lead to further study years in Botany.(BIO 111 is the Botany Section - 1st semester, and BIO 121, the Zoology section of the Biology Course - 2nd semester)




Cell Structure  (2 weeks):

  1. Development of the cell theory

  2. Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic cells
  3. Cell wall & plasma membrane
  4. The Nucleus
  5. Organelles:  Chloroplast, other plastids, mitochondria, peroxisomes, vacuoles, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, flagella & cillia


Metabolism (3 weeks):

  1. Respiration:

           i.    Overview of glucose oxidation

           ii.   Glycolysis

           iii.  Aerobic respiration

           iv.  Anaerobic respiration

  1. Photosynthesis

           i.    The nature of light

           ii.   The role of pigments

           iii.  The reactions of photosynthesis

           iv.  Carbon-fixation  & the carbon cycle

           v.   Differences between C-3, C-4 & CAM photosynthesis


 B.  PLANT KINGDOM  - 4 Weeks


    1.    Brief introduction to classification and the five kingdoms

    2.    Life Histories of:

            i.    Mosses and Liverworts

            ii.   Ferns

            iii.  Gymnosperms

            iv.  Angiosperms


C.  ANATOMY - 3  Weeks


    1.    Apical Meristems

    2.    Tissue types:

             i.     Parenchyma

             ii.    Sclerenchyma

             iii.   Collenchyma

   3.    Primary anatomy of the root

   4.    Primary anatomy of the stem (monocot and dicot)

   5.    Primary anatomy of the leaf  (monocot, dicot, C-3 & C-4)

   6.    Secondary growth in stems

   7.    Vascular cambium

   8.    Wood: secondary xylem


D.  ECOLOGY - 3  Weeks


   1.    Interactions between organisms

   2.    Nutrient cycling

   3.    Trophic levels

   4.    The agricultural revolution

   5.    Agriculture in the future

   6.    The transition to sustainability in the new millennium