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Prof Ken Liu

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Contact: Tel: +27406022710; Mobile: +27823972116; Email: kliu@ufh.ac.za

 

GENERAL INFORMATION

Qualifications               :BSc (Chengdu University of Technology, 1977); MSc (Graduate  School, Chinese University of Science. & Technology, 1981); PhD (Institute of Geology & Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1987)

Current Position            : Professor (Department of Geology, University of Fort Hare)

Working Experience       : With more than 40 years of working experience in geology discipline in High Education, Mining Industry, Geological Consultant Companies and Research  Institutions 

Publications (number)   : 49 publications, 40 peer reviewed; 23 conference abstracts and presentations

 

Co-/Supervision (graduated): 3 PhD, 9 MSc, 52 Honours

Current Co-/Supervision (2015): 5 PhD, 11 MSc, 5 Honours (cf. details below)

 

CAREER

2012-10 to present: Professor in Geology Department, University of Fort Hare, South Africa.

 

2011-01to 2012-09: Associate Professor in University of Fort Hare, South Africa.

 

2009-01 to 2010-12: Consultant geologist (Sinosteel and Kai Batla), Johannesburg.

 

2005-01to 2008-12: Associate Professor, School of Geological Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

 

1996-01to 2004-12: Associate Professor, Geology Department, University of Durban-Westville, South Africa.

 

1992-04 to 1995-12: Senior Lecturer, Geology Department, University of Durban-Westville, South Africa.

 

1990-10 to 1992-04: Post-Doctor and then Research Scientist, Department of Geology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

 

1987-08 to 1990-09: Senior Researcher (equal to Senior Lecturer), Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

 

1984-03 to 1987-07: PhD (Geology) Student (part-time), received PhD (Geology) degree in 1987/08, Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Beijing, China.

 

1981-10 to 1984-02: Junior Researcher (equal to Lecturer), Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Beijing, China.

 

1978-09 to 1981-09: MSc (Geology) student, Graduate School of Chinese University of Science and Technology. Beijing, China. Received MSc (Geology) degree in 1981/10.

 

1977-10 to 1978-08: Mining Geologist in Kunming Mine Company (coal, manganese and uranium mines), Yunnan Province, China.

 

1974-09-1977-10: BSc (Geology) student, Chengdu University of Technology, China.

 

1968-12 to 1974-08: Geo-technician, Geological Survey, Yunnan Province, China.

 

 

ACADEMIC QUALIFICATION

 

1987 August: PhD (Geology), Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing.

 

1981 October: MSc (Geology), Graduate School of Chinese University of Science and Technology, Beijing.

 

1977 October: BSc (Geology), Chengdu University of Technology, China.

 

 

MAIN RESEARCH AREAS

 

Stratigraphy, Sedimentology, Mining Geology, Petroleum Geology, Coal Geology, Diagenesis, Basin Analysis.

 

 

CURRENT RESEARCH PROJECTS

 

1. Manganese ore-deposits in North Cape and Northwest Provinces.

2. Ferruginous ore-deposits in Babanango areas, north KZN.

3. Characteristics of hydrocarbon reservoir in South African offshore basins.

4. Coal deposits in Karoo Supergroup.

5. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and diagenesis of Mzamba Formation, Msikaba Formation and Karoo Supergroup in KZN and EC.

6. Shale gas in Ecca Group, Karoo Supergroup in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

7. Environment geology and marine geology in Algoa Bay and St Francis Bay, Eastern Cape.

 

 

NRF RATING: C Grade (1996-2006)

 

Established researcher who, as individuals or members of a team, produce research outputs of an international standard, which are appreciated by the science, engineering and technology community either internationally or locally.

 

 

CURRENT COURSES TAUGHT IN UFH (2011 to 2015)

 

GLG221 Geology of ore-deposits

GLG313 South African Geology  

GLG322 Engineering Geology

GLG323 Mining and Evaluation (Economic Geology)

GLG505 Honours research projects (supervised 5 Hons projects in 2015 and 6 Hons projects in 2016)

GLG511 Economic Geology

GLG521 Environmental Geology

GLG522 Sedimentology, Basin Analysis, and Mining Geology

 

 

SUPERVISION AND COSUPERVISION OF POSTGRADUATES

 

GRADUATED: 3 PhD, 9 MSc and 52 Honours until 2014

 

 

CURRENT POSTGRADUATE SUPERVISION (2015)

 

PhD students (5 in 2015, supervisor and cosupervisor):

 

Christopher Baiyegunhi (201201530): Sedimentary and geophysical investigation of shale gas potential of the Ecca Group in Karoo Basin in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

 

George Maneya (200807263): Coal petrology and basin analysis of the Permian coal measures in the Livingstonia Basin in Malawi.

 

Nevin Tunhuma (200802431): The integrated study of the Massabi Coal Field in the Tuli Coal District, Beitbridge, Zimbabwe: Basin analysis, exploration and potential environmental impact assessment.

 

Lindani Ncube (200437429): An investigation of source rocks and depositional environments on acid mine drainage in the coal mines of South Africa (co-supervisor). Graduated in September, 2015.

 

Ntokozo Malaza (200272608): Basin Analysis of the Soutpansberg and Tuli Coalfields, Limpopo Province of South Africa (co-supervisor). Graduated in May, 2015.

 

 

MSc students (11 in 2015, supervisor and cosupervisor):

 

Benedict Pharoe (200908419): Mineral composition, geological occurrence and origin of the manganese ore-deposit in Carletonville, Northwest Province of South Africa. Graduated in September, 2015 with Cum Laude.

 

Sinovuyo Busakwe (200909378): Stratigraphy, sedimentology of the Msikaba Formation in KZN south coast, South Africa. Passed dissertation, and will be graduated in May, 2016. 

 

Xoliswa Maliwa (200908065): Seafloor sediments and hydrodynamics of Algoa Bay and St Francis Bay in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

Priscilla Chima (201105459): Geological and geophysical studies on the Stormberg Group, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province.

 

Sipho Ndibo (201006892): Sediment composition and hydrodynamic condition of the channel and floodplain of the of the Swartkops Estuary in Eastern Cape. (Environmental geology project).

Silmina Mokoele (201400590): Geological and geophysical investigation of reservoir rock properties of the Gamtoos Basin, Eastern Cape. 

 

Kelebone Letsie (200700293):  Characteristics of reservoir rocks of the Exploration Blocks 1 and 9, South African offshore.

 

Machel Katwire (200600713): Stratigraphy, sedimentary facies and diagenesis of the coal deposits in the Indwe area, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

 

Siphokazi Mzana ( 200909331): Lithostratigraphic relationships, sedimentology and provenance interpretation of the Katberg and Burgersdorp Formations in the area around the town of Whittlesea, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. (cosupervisor)

Ngoni Mupandawana (201013493): Geological and geophysical characterization of Ecca Group sediments in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. (cosupervisor).

 

Nomveliso Caku (201415072): Tentative-Basin analysis: modelling and seismic stratigraphy analysis of the Algoa Basin in South Africa. (cosupervisor).

 

 

Honours student supervision (5 in 2015): All of them passed their research projects

 

Zizipho Dyantyi (201206647): Grain size and mineral compositions of the Sediments in the Kromme Estuary. Eastern Cape Province.

 

Luvo Magobongo (201206812): Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Stormberg Group, Karoo Supergroup in Eastern Cape of South Africa.

 

Mulweli Daswa (201214221): Sediment characteristics of the Gamtoos Estuary, Eastern Cape Province.

 

Tshisikhaiwe Nemanashi (201202721): Exploration potential and environmental consideration of shale gas in the Beaufort Group, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province.

 

Andrew Peega (201208756): Geology of Bastardy Platinum ore layer in Bushveld Igneous Complex in Rustenburg, South Africa. (with distinction, 84%).

 

PUBLICATIONS

Pharoe B.K. Baiyegunhi C. and Liu K., 2015. Provenance, tectonic setting and diagenesis of the Mn-Fe coated terrigenous clasts from the modern soil profiles, Northwest Province of South Africa: a case study of the Carletonville area. IOSR Journal of Applied Geology and Geophysics, e-ISSN: 2321. 0982. Vol. 3, Issue 5. 16-29.

Malaza N., Liu, K.W. and Zhao B., 2015. Subsidence analysis and burial history of the Late Carboniferous to Early Jurassic Soutpansberg Basin, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition). Accepted, in print. ID-AGS-2014-065.R2. DHET accredited journal.

Malaza N., Liu, K.W. and Zhao B., 2015. Paleostress analysis of Karoo Supergroup of the Tshipise-Pafuri basin, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Geol., V.118 (2), 173-184. DHET accredited journal.

 

Malaza N., Liu K. W. and Zhao B., 2013. Facies analysis and depositional environments of the late Palaeozoic coal-bearing Madzaringwe Formation in the Tshipise-Pafuri Basin, South Africa, ISRN Geology, Volume 2013, Article ID 120380, p.1-11. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. http://dx.doi. org/10.1155/2013/120380. Open edition. doi:10.1155/2013/120380.

Malaza N. and Liu K. W., 2013. Basin structural analysis of Karoo Supergroup of Tshipise-Pafuri basin, South Africa. P.202-222. In: Shu Sun, Qicheng Wang, Renwei Li and Rixiang Zhu (editors), Symposium on the 100th anniversary of birthday of Chinese Academician Prof. Lianjun Ye. Science Publication House, 2013, Beijing. Total 275pp.  ISBN978-7-03-038708-0.

 

Hicks N., Dunlevey J.N. and Liu K.W., 2011. A new stromatolite occurrence in the Nsuze Group, Pongola Supergroup of northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Geol. 114 (2), 199-204. (DHET recognised journal).

 

Liu K.W., 2010. Pt-Cr-Ni ore-deposits in South Africa: Occurrences and economic potential. Geological consultant report, 28pp.

 

Liu K.W., 2010. Manganese and uranium ore-deposits in South Africa: Geological occurrences, distribution and economic potential. Geological consultant report, 32pp.

 

Liu K..W., Subramani D. and Naiker S.B. 2009. Coal resource and mining potential in Balfour areas, southeastern Johannesburg. Geological consultant report. 18pp.

 

Cooper M.R. and Liu K. W., 2006. The Cainozoic palaeontology and stratigraphy of KwaZulu-Natal. Part 4: The post-Karoo geology of the Durban area, with special reference to the Isipingo Formation. Durban Museum Novitates, V. 31, 1-23. (DHET recognised journal).

 

 Liu K.W., 2002. Deep burial diagenesis of the siliciclastic Ordovician Natal Group, South Africa. Sedimentary Geology, 154, 177-189. (DHET recognised journal).

 

Liu K.W. & M.R. Cooper, 1999. Tidalites in the Natal Group-Reply to Discussion. S.Afr. J. Geol., 102 (4), 406-409. (DHET recognised journal).

 

Cooper, M.R. and Liu, K.W., 1999. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Need's Camp Formation (Paleogene), Eastern Cape. Durban Museum Novitates, 24, 57-61. (DHET recognised journal).

 

Liu K. W., 1999. Nature and distribution of heavy minerals in the Natal Group, South Africa. In: S. Marriott and J. Alexander (-eds), Flood Plains: Interdisciplinary Approaches. 311-325. Geol. Soc. London, Special Publ. 163, 330pp. (DHET recognised publication).

 

Liu K. W. & M.R. Cooper, 1998. Tidalites in the Natal Group. S. Afr. J. Geol., 101 (4), 307-312. (DHET recognised journal).

 

Liu K. W., 1997. Cainozoic aeolian sediments and their diagenesis at Isipingo beach, Natal south coast, South Africa. In: B.J. Liu and W.H. Li (-eds). Basin Analysis and Global Sedimentology. VSP Inc. Publ, The Netherlands (Proceedings of the 30th International Geological Congress, Vol. 8), 121-140. (DHET recognised publication).

 

Liu K. W., 1997, Stratigraphy and depositional environments of the Natal Group at Park Rynie Beach, KwaZulu-Natal Province. S. Afr. J. Geol., 100 (2), 137-150. (DHET recognised journal).                                                                                                                

 

Liu K. W. & Greyling E.H., 1996. Grain-size distribution and cementation of the Cretaceous Mzamba Formation of Eastern Cape, South Africa: a case study of a storm-influenced offshore sequence. Sedimentary Geol., 107 (1), 83-98. (DHET recognised journal).

 

Liu K. W., 1995. Diagenesis of the Neogene Uloa Formation of Zululand, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Geol., 98 (1), 25-34. (DHET recognised journal).

 

Liu K. W. & Chen, Q. Y., 1994. Cementation processes of phosphorites. Scientia Geologica Sinica, V. 29, N. 1, 62-72. (DHET recognised journal).

 

Chen Q. Y. & Liu K. W., 1993. Sedimentary facies belts of phosphorite-bearing series and biometallogenic processes in China. 30-40. In: L. J. Ye & Q. Y. Chen (-eds). Biogenic Mineralization. Ocean Press, Beijing, China. 217pp. (DHET recognised publication).

 

Liu K. W. & B. Buchardt, 1993. Clay minerals of Chinese Cambrian black shales. Scientia Geologica Sinca, V. 2, N.4 (English edition), 397-416. (DHET recognised journal).

 

Liu K. W. & Buchardt B., 1993. Geochemical characteristics of Chinese Cambrian black shales and their comparison with Scandinavian alum shales. Scientia Geologica Sinica, V.2, N.2 (English edition), 163-184. (DHET recognised journal).

 

Liu K. W., 1993. Palaeoclimate changing through geological time in China. 124-148. In: L. J. Ye & Q. Y. Chen (-eds), Sedimentary Geological History of China. Sci. & Techn. Publication House, China. (in Chinese).

 

Liu K. W., 1992. Diagenesis of phosphorite. In: Li J. Y. (-ed): Symposium (6) of Geoscience Research. 119-191, plus 6 photoplates. Sci. Pub. House, Beijing, 231pp (in Chinese). (DHET recognised publication).

 

Liu K. W. & B. Buchardt, 1992. The clay minerals of Scandinavian Alum Shale. 1-7. In: M.V. Nielsen (-ed), Pre-Westphalien source rocks in NW-Europe. 145pp.

 

Liu K. W., 1991. Factors affecting and indicating palaeoclimate. Geology Abroad, Vol. 1991, No. 1, p5-11 (in Chinese).

 

Liu K.W., 1990. Evolution of apatite in diagenesis. Acta Geol. Sinica, V.3, N.2, (English Edition), 147-162. (DHET recognised journal).

 

Liu K. W., Chen Q. Y. & Han A. P., 1990. Siliceous components and siliceous rocks in phosphorite strata. Acta Petrologica Sinica, V.1990, N.1, 46-57 (in Chinese with English abstract). (DHET recognised journal).

 

Liu K. W., 1990. Classification and characteristics of biogenetic ore-deposits. Journal of Advances in Earth Sciences, V. 18, No.3, 25-29 (in Chinese).

 

Liu K. W., 1989. Diagenetic changes of apatite minerals. Acta Geol. Sinica, No. 4. 310-323. (DHET recognised journal).

 

Liu K. W. & Chen Q. Y., 1989. Crystallinity and sharpness indices of apatite-a new method for determining diagenetic stages. 153-166. In: S.J. Wang (-ed): Advances in Geosciences (1). China Ocean Press, 354 pp. (in English). (DHET recognised publication).

 

Ye L. J., Chen Q. Y. & Liu K. W., 1989. Phosphorites in China. Science Press, Beijing, 339pp. (I wrote 2 chapters). This Book was awarded a 'FIRST GRADE MERIT PRIZE' by Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1991, and was also awarded a '2nd GRADE MERIT PRIZE" by National Committee of Science and Technology of China in 1991.

 

Liu K. W., 1987. Diagenesis of phosphorites in China. Ph.D. thesis, Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. 201pp.                                   

 

Liu K. W., 1987. Hydrodynamic conditions for the formation of phosphorite ore-deposits. In: J.Y. Li (ed): Symposium (2) of Geological Research, 1-14. Science Press, Beijing, 254pp. This paper was awarded a merit prize as 'Excellent Paper' by the Geological Society of China in 1987.

 

Ye L. J., Chen Q. Y. and Liu K. W., 1986. Physical enrichment - a new theory on the genesis of industrial phosphorite deposits. 1-29. Acta Sedimentologica Sinica, V. 4, N. 3. (DHET recognised journal).

 

Cheng Menge and Liu K. W., 1986. Geological significance of newly discovered microfossils from the Upper Sinian phosphorites. Scientia Geologica Sinica, V. 21, N. 1, 46-55. (DHET recognised journal).

 

Liu K. W., 1985. The texture types, genesis and ore-formation stages of sedimentary phosphorites. Acta Sedimentologica Sinica, 3 (1), 29-43. (DHET recognised journal).

 

Liu K. W., 1984. Mineralogy and petrology of phosphorite ore-deposits in Weng'an, Guizhou Province, China. 319-334. In: Symposium of 5th International Field Workshop and Seminar on Phosphorites. Geol. Pub. House, 466pp.

 

Liu K. W., 1983. Sedimentary environments of phosphorite ore-deposit in Weng'an, Guizhou Province. In: Symposium of MSc Geological Dissertations in 1981. Sci. & Techn. Publ. House, Beijing, 310-319.

 

Liu K. W., 1981. Petrology and sedimentary environments of phosphorites in Sinian Doushanto Formation in Weng'an Region, Guizou Province, China. MSc dissertation, Graduate School, Chinese University of Science and technology. Beijing. 108pp.

 

Lin Z.C. & Liu K. W., 1978. The uranium deposits in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China. Mining Geology, V. 23, 279-286 (in Chinese).

 

Lin Z. C. & Liu K. W., 1978. Tertiary coal deposits in Yunnan Province, south-western China. Mining Geology, V. 23, 23-34 (in Chinese).

 

Liu K. W., 1977. The Sedimentary environment of uranium-bearing coal deposits in Jiaoping region, Shanxi Province of China. B.Sc. thesis, Chengdu University of Technology, China. 48pp.

 

Liu K. W., Li F. Y. & Dai M. 1976. Geological characteristics of the uranium ore-deposits in the Mesozoic granites in Wongyu County, South China. Geological Report, Guangdong Geol. Survey, China. 17pp.

 

Yu C. M. & Liu K. W., 1974. Uranization of Mesozoic coal-deposits in the southwestern China. Geological Report, Yunnan Geol. Survey, China. 27pp.

 

Chen M. H. & Liu K. W., 1974. Uranium and coal deposits in Tertiary fluviatile sediments in the Nanchang County, Yunnan Province of China. Geological Report, Yunnan Geol. survey, China. 24pp.

 

Wang G. M. & Liu K. W., 1973. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Cambrian phosphorite at Nilang county, Yunnan Province of China. Geological Report, Yunnan Geol. Survey, China. 19pp.

 

Chen M. H. & Liu K. W., 1972. Geology along the Lanchang River, Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Geological Report, Yunnan Geol. Survey, 22pp.

 

 

 

 

SOME CONFERENCE PRESENTATION/ABSTRACTS

 

Malaza, N., Liu K. and Zhao B., 2013, Petrology and geochemistry of the late Palaeozoic Madzaringwe and Mikambeni Formations of the Tshipise-Pafuri sub-basin, South Africa: Implications for their source, provenance, paleoweathering and tectonic setting. Session 3 Posters, GeoForum 2013, GSSA, 2-5 July, 2013. Newtown, Johannesburg.

 

Rasmeni S., Zhao B. and Liu K., 2013. Lithostratigraphic correlation, mineralogy and geochemistry of the Lower Manganese Orebody at Kalagadi Manganese Mine, the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. Session 3 Posters, GeoForum 2013, GSSA, 2-5 July, 2013. Newtown, Johannesburg.

 

Rasmeni S., Zhao B. and Liu K., 2012. Lithostratigraphic correlation, mineralogy and geochemistry of the Lower Manganese Ore-body at Kalagadi Manganese Mine in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. Geocongress 34, Australia (accepted).

 

Malaza, N., Zhao B. and Liu K, 2012. Stratigraphy and facies analysis of the Karoo Supergroup in Limpopo and Soutpansberg coal fields, South Africa. Geocongress 34, Australia (accepted).

 

Liu K. W., 2005. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Msikaba Formation along the east coast of South Africa. Geocongress of South Africa, Geo2005; held in UKZN, Durban. Conference Abstract Volume P.129.

 

Liu K.W., 2000. Origin and diagenesis of Quaternary Ironstone in Babanango area, northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. 15th Australian Geological Convention, Sydney, Abstracts No.59, p. 309.

 

Liu K.W., 1999. Introduction to University of Durban-Westville. P.42. In: Abstract of the First National Conference on Science and Technology of the Chinese Scholars in South Africa. 74pp.

 

Liu K.W., 1999. Gold and diamond ore-deposits in South Africa. P.40-41. In: Abstract of the First National Conference on Science and Technology of the Chinese Scholars in South Africa. 74pp.

 

Liu K. W., 1999. Deep burial diagenesis of the Palaeozoic Natal Group, South Africa. Abstracts of 1999 Annual Meeting & Exposition, Denver, Colorado. The Geological Society of America, p161.

 

Liu K. W., 1998. Lithology and heavy minerals of the Ordovician Natal Group, South Africa. Abstracts of the Floodplain'98, Norwich, England. P. 61.

 

Liu K. W., 1998. Diagenesis of the fluvial Natal Group. Extended Abstract of the Geocongress'98, Geol. Soc. S. Afr., Pretoria. P. 169-171.

 

Liu K. W., 1997. Facies and diagenesis of the fluvial Natal Group, South Africa. Abstracts of the 6th International Conference on Fluvial Sedimentology. Cape Town, South Africa. P. 113.

 

Liu K. W., 1996. A transitional deposits from a braided river to river mouth bar-the Natal Group at Park Rynie beach, South Africa. Abstracts (2) of the 30th International Geological Congress, Beijing. P. 189.

 

Liu K. W., 1996. Pleistocene aeolian sediments at Isipingo beach, Natal south coast, Republic of South Africa. Abstracts (2) of the 30th International Geological Congress, Beijing. P. 160.

 

Liu K. W., 1991. Clay minerals in the Cambrian Alum shale. Abstract of Geocongress 1991. Geological Society of Denmark. Copenhagen; P. 122.

 

Liu K. W., 1990. Characteristics and formation mechanism of biogenetic ore-deposits. Abstracts of Workshop on Biogenetic Sedimentary Ore-Deposits. Beijing; P. 83-84.

 

Liu K. W., 1990. Phosphorite-ore deposits in China. Abstract of Geocongress , 1990. Beijing; Geol. Soc. China. P. 231-232.

 

Liu K. W., 1988. Characteristics and origin of Sinian phosphorite ore-deposits in Guizhou Province, China. Abstracts of International Symposium on Sedimentary Related Mineral Deposits. Beijing, China. P. 242-243.

 

Liu K. W., 1988. The stratigraphy and sedimentology of manganese ore-deposits in southern China. Abstracts of International Symposium on Sedimentary Related Mineral Deposits. Beijing, China. P. 112.

 

Liu K. W., 1986. Manganese ore-deposits hosted in the Cambrian black shale in Hunan Province. Abstracts of Geocongress 1986. Beijing; Geological Society of China. P. 186-187.

 

Liu K. W., 1986. Hydrodynamic condition and physical enrichment processes for the formation of industrial phosphorite deposits. Abstracts of Geocongress 1986. Beijing; Geol. Soc. China. P. 145-146.

 

Liu K. W., 1984. Diagenesis of siliceous sediments in Cambrian carbonate and phosphorite in Jiangxi Province, South China. Abstracts of Geocongress 1984. Beijing, Geological Society of China. P. 125.

 

Liu K. W., 1982. Depositional environments of the Wengan phosphorite ore-deposit in Guizhou Province, south China. Abstract of the 5th International Field Workshop and Seminar on Phosphorites. Kunming, China. P. 178-179.